Process Simulation and Material Modelling


The IBF carries out process simulations for a wide range of forming processes. Entire process chains can be simulated and effects on various scales can be taken into account. The range extends from macroscopic effects, such as the component geometry to surface structures and the microstructure of the material.

The process simulations can be used, for example, for process design and optimization in the areas of sheet metal forming and bulk metal forming. In combination with suitable material models, it is also possible to predict the microstructure evolution.

For process simulation, the IBF uses a wide range of both academic and industrially used software packages and also develops own software.


Simulation Sheet Metal Forming

Simulation of four-sided stretch forming Copyright: © IBF

In the field of sheet metal forming we carry out process simulations mainly with the finite element programs Abaqus, LS-Dyna and Autoform.
Validated simulation models are available for stretch forming, deep drawing, bending and incremental sheet metal forming. If required, suitable models can be developed for other processes.

For further information, please contact the management of the research group Sheet Metal Forming.


Simulation Bulk Metal Forming

Ring Rolling in experiment and simulation Copyright: © IBF

In the field of bulk metal forming, process simulations are carried out with the finite element programs Abaqus, Simufact, Deform and Forge. Validated simulation models are available for open-die forging, ring rolling, flat rolling, roll bonding and caliber rolling. If required, suitable models can be developed for other processes.
For further information on the simulation of open-die forging and ring rolling, please contact the manager of the research group Bulk Metal Forming. For the simulation of flat rolling, roll bonding and caliber rolling, please contact the manager of the reserach group Flat and Long Products.


Microstructure Simulation with DIGIMU® and StrucSim


DIGIMU®, developed by the software manufacturer TRANSVALOR S.A., and StrucSim, developed at the IBF, are programs for the simulation of the microstructural development during hot forming. DIGIMU® is based on physical approaches and allows a spatially resolved representation of grain size evolution and average dislocation density. The optimization of the material model parametrization, as well as the targeted application for industrial forming processes are ongoing work in close cooperation with TRANSVALOR. In StrucSim, the microstructure of the material is described by state variables that evolve depending on the process parameters. Thus, microstructural variables such as the mean grain size or recrystallized (RX) fraction can be calculated and the flow stress derived from them. Empirical modelling approaches allow here a low computational time for coupling with fast process models to calculate the evolution of grain size distributions and RX fractions.

For further information, please contact Holger Brüggemann.

Image: Comparison of microstructure from DIGIMU® and from compression test, Copyright: IBF

Fast Process Models for Rolling

Einzelstich beim Walzen inklusive Kraft-, Temperatur- und Mikrostrukturentwicklung

Fast process models enable the accurate simulation of heavy plate rolling on the industrial and laboratory scale. Based on the pass schedule and material parameters it predicts the most important properties, such as force, temperature and microstructure, within seconds. Thus it has a wide range of applications, particularly in the field of design and optimization. With Industry 4.0 in mind, it has been coupled to a data base of industrial trials resulting in the ability to determine material parameters from just the measured forces. It has furthermore been coupled with machine learning algorithms to automatically design pass schedules for the universal rolling mill at the IBF. Fast process models are also being used for teaching and seminars, supplemented by a specially created graphical user interface. It allows students and seminar participants to develop an intuitive approach to the design, calculation and optimization of pass schedule as well as a detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

For further information, please contact Christian Idzik.

Image: Single pass during rolling including force, temperature and microstructure evolution, Copyright: IBF

STOFF - Fast Calculation Models for Open-Die Forging


Open-die forging is an incremental forming process, where the initial ingot is forged in up to many hundred forming steps towards the final geometry. The design of new forging process is mainly realized based upon experience or simple geometric correlations. However, by this only a simple geometrical-based process design is possible which does not give any statement about the temperature, the equivalent strain and the grain size. Since FE-simulation of open-die forging is very time consuming and requires a large numerical effort, the IBF developed fast calculation models for open-die forging, which allow the fast calculation of these decisive target values within seconds. Combined with a GUI, a property based design and optimization of open-die forging process can be successfully realized. Furthermore, these models offer a significant potential for teaching purposes as the correlations between forging parameters and resulting workpiece properties can be analyzed in a descriptive way.

For further information, please contact Niklas Reinisch.

Image: Extended informations about the forging process using fast models, Copyright: IBF